Hyperpigmentation is a common skin condition that results in dark patches on the skin. This can be caused by a variety of factors including excessive sun exposure, aging, hormonal changes during pregnancy, and certain medications. When melanin production is not normal or in excess, it can lead to the development of hyperpigmentation. But fear not, there are ways to reduce excessive melanin production and brighten the skin.
Chemical products such as kojic acid and its derivatives can block the formation of pigment by melanocytes, making them popular lighteners in cosmetic products. Additionally, chemical peels like Trichloroacetic acid, Jessner’s solution, Unna’s paste, α-hydroxy acid preparations, and Salicylic acid have shown promising results in treating melasma.
In this blog post, we will delve deeper into the ingredients that can help combat hyperpigmentation and brighten your skin.
Kojic acid is a skin-lightening ingredient that’s popular in the cosmetic industry, and it can be found in soaps, creams, and serums that promise to reduce discoloration or spots. It is a naturally occurring hydrophilic fungal product that can be found in soy sauce, sake, and rice wine.
Although kojic acid has been used in Japan for centuries as a food additive and preservative, it wasn’t until recently that scientists began studying its potential benefits as a skincare product.
Researchers found that this natural compound acts as an inhibitor of tyrosinase, the enzyme responsible for the production of melanin. This reduces hyperpigmentation and prevents melanin formation, which lightens the skin tone.
In addition to its use as a skin lightener, kojic acid has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-proliferative properties that make it useful for treating acne and other skin conditions.
According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), kojic acid is safe at a concentration of 1%. Other scientific data support its safety at 2% or less. Studies have shown that when used in concentrations lower than these, KA does not cause eye or skin irritation.
Despite its popularity in skin care products, kojic acid may cause contact dermatitis and possible photo-damaging if you’re exposed to sunlight without sunscreen. If you are using it on your face, be sure to wear sun protection at all times.
If you’re someone who struggles with hyperpigmentation, chances are you’ve heard of hydroquinone. This skin-lightening agent comes in a variety of forms—including cream, emulsion, gel, and solution—and is used to treat dyschromia (skin discoloration), postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), and melasma.
When used as directed (usually in concentrations of 2-4%), hydroquinone is generally considered safe and effective. In fact, a 2016 study found that a combination of hydroquinone, tretinoin, and fluocinolone acetonide was effective in reducing the severity of melasma in a majority of patients. Other studies have also shown promising results in the use of hydroquinone for hyperpigmentation.
Your dermatologist may recommend using hydroquinone twice daily for up to 6 months to treat post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. But remember to wear sunscreen when using this product, because it can make your skin more sensitive to the sun’s harmful rays. Some people may experience irritation or allergic contact dermatitis while using hydroquinone, as well as nail discoloration in rare cases.
Another great ingredient for treating hyperpigmentation is aloesin, which is derived from the aloe vera plant. Aloesin inhibits the production of melanin, so it helps lighten dark spots on your skin.
A study published in PubMed found that the combination of aloesin and arbutin could inhibit the production of epidermal melanin. The study involved 15 subjects exposed to UV radiation on their inner forearm, divided into four groups: control, aloesin-treated, arbutin-treated, and aloesin-arbutin cotreatment. Results showed that aloesin, arbutin, and the cotreatment suppressed pigmentation by 34%, 43.5%, and 63.3%, respectively, compared to the control group.
Additionally, aloesin was found to have a dose-dependent effect on pigmentation, meaning that the more of it that was applied, the greater the reduction in pigmentation. It is important to note, however, that it may take several weeks or even months of consistent use to see results.
The use of sunscreen is recommended when using aloe vera to treat hyperpigmentation because sun exposure can make the condition worse.
Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol)
Alpha-tocopherol, the most common form of vitamin E, has been found to have photo-protective effects (protecting skin from sun damage).
The results of clinical studies show that topical vitamin E can help reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation, particularly melasma and pigmented contact dermatitis. Furthermore, using a combination of vitamins C and E together has been found to produce even better results than either treatment alone.
In general, it is recommended to use vitamin E in concentrations of 5% or less for topical application. A number of studies have shown that applying vitamin E topically rarely causes allergic or irritant reactions.
Orchid extract has been found to be effective in treating hyperpigmentation, with studies showing that it can help reduce the appearance of melasma and lentigines.
In a 2010 study conducted by Taketsugu Tadokoro of Osaka National Hospital, 48 female patients with hyperpigmentation showed improvement after treatment with orchid extract.
The study found that the orchid-rich plant extract had efficacy similar to that of vitamin C—as well as in treating facial discoloration, such as melasma and lentigo senilis. If you are looking for a natural alternative to treat hyperpigmentation, orchid extract may be worth considering.
Cinnamic acid is a naturally occurring phenylpropanoid compound that has been found to be effective in treating hyperpigmentation.
In one study, treatment with cinnamic acid resulted in a significant reduction in tyrosinase activity and melanin production in melanocytes.
Another study found that cinnamic acid showed greater inhibition of tyrosinase activity than hydroquinone did.
Glycolic acid is a chemical exfoliant that works by removing dead skin cells. It’s also known as fruit acid, since it’s derived from sugar cane and other plants.
Glycolic acid is a compound that’s part of the alpha hydroxy acid family. It’s easily absorbed into the epidermis and dermis, where it works to remove dead skin cells and stimulate cell turnover. This helps to reduce hyperpigmentation by increasing exfoliation, which lightens dark spots over time.
A recent study examined the effectiveness of glycolic acid peels for treating postinflammatory hyperpigmentation in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV, V, and VI. The study found that glycolic acid peels were effective in treating hyperpigmentation but that the concentration of the peel was critical: higher concentrations were more effective than lower concentrations.
When using glycolic acid for hyperpigmentation, it is important to use a sunscreen with a high SPF to protect the skin from further sun damage. It is also recommended to start with a lower concentration of glycolic acid and gradually increase the concentration as the skin becomes more accustomed to the treatment. This can help to minimize irritation and prevent any adverse reactions.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
There is some evidence that vitamin C can reduce hyperpigmentation, though this may be more indirect than direct. Studies have shown that the reduced tyrosinase activity mediated by vitamin C seems to result from its antioxidant properties rather than direct inhibition of tyrosinase itself.
In a study of 16 female patients with melasma, the 5% ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and 4% hydroquinone showed improvement of 62.5%, 93%. The results of this study suggest that both hydroquinone and vitamin C treatments may be effective in treating melasma; however, the efficacy of hydroquinone appears to be superior.
Niacinamide, also known as nicotinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 that has been studied for its potential to reduce hyperpigmentation and lighten skin. Studies have shown that niacinamide can be an effective skin-lightening compound, working by inhibiting melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.
In a clinical study of 18 Japanese women, 5% niacinamide was found to significantly decrease hyperpigmentation and increase skin lightness after 4 weeks of use.
To enhance the effectiveness of your niacinamide serum, try pairing it with a hyaluronic acid formula. Some experts claim that this will help products penetrate deeper into the skin.
Azelaic acid is a promising ingredient in the fight against hyperpigmentation, and several studies have looked into its efficacy in treating this condition. It is a naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid that has been found to act as a tyrosinase inhibitor, which means that it can help to even out and lighten skin tone by preventing the production of excess melanin.
One study published in the National Library of Medicine investigated the effects of a 20% Azelaic acid cream on patients with melasma. The researchers found that Azelaic acid was more effective in reducing hyperpigmentation than a 4% hydroquinone cream, which is a commonly used topical treatment. The study also found that Azelaic acid was well-tolerated by patients, with only mild side effects like burning and stinging reported.
Another study looked at the effects of combining Azelaic acid with Glycolic acid for the treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. The researchers found that the combination of Azelaic acid and Glycolic acid enhanced skin lightening and reduced hyperpigmentation. The study concluded that this combination was safe and effective for the treatment of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.
Azelaic acid’s effect can be attributed to its ability to inhibit the energy production of hyperactive melanocytes and partially because it is an antityrosinase. This may also account for the beneficial effect on postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.
One of the most effective treatments for hyperpigmentation is retinoids, which are vitamin A derivatives. The mechanism of action for retinoids in treating hyperpigmentation is through the inhibition of tyrosinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the production of melanin.
Studies have shown that the use of topical tretinoin, a type of retinoid, can be effective in treating melasma. One study found that patients who used tretinoin cream for 40 weeks saw a 68% improvement in their melasma.
While retinoids are generally safe to use, they can cause some side effects, including skin redness and peeling. These side effects can be minimized by starting with a low dose and gradually increasing the dose over time. It’s also important to use sunscreen when using retinoids, as they can increase the skin’s sensitivity to the sun.
Next up is Licorice extract, derived from the Glycyrrhiza glabra plant, which is known to have skin-brightening properties because it inhibits the production of melanin.
Studies have shown that licorice extract can disperse melanin, preventing it from clumping together and forming dark spots on the skin. In addition, licorice extract contains a compound called Glabridin, which can reduce UVB-induced pigmentation and inflammation in the skin. This means that regular use of licorice extract can help reduce the appearance of dark spots and even out skin tone.
Marine Algae Extract
Marine algae extract is a rich source of bioactive compounds that have been shown to be effective in treating hyperpigmentation.
Several studies have shown that marine algae extract can inhibit the activity of tyrosinase, leading to a reduction in melanin production and a lightening of the skin. In one study, researchers found that marine algae extract was as effective in reducing hyperpigmentation as kojic acid—without the accompanying side effects.
Studies have shown that brown algae are particularly effective at reducing hyperpigmentation. Its effectiveness and safety make it a popular choice in the skincare industry, and ongoing research is likely to uncover even more potential benefits of this powerful natural ingredient.
Pycnogenol is derived from the bark of a French maritime pine, and it’s a potent antioxidant—several times more powerful than Vitamin E or C.
A study published in 2002 found that Pycnogenol was an effective treatment for melasma. The researchers treated 30 patients with Pycnogenol and observed a significant reduction in the intensity of their melasma after four weeks. No side effects were reported by any participants during this time period.
A recent study by the Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine found that pycnogenol improved skin barrier function and extracellular matrix homeostasis. This means that it can protect your skin from environmental damage, a leading cause of hyperpigmentation.
Mequinol is a derivative of hydroquinone and is used as a topical treatment for hyperpigmentation. It is a powerful tyrosinase inhibitor. Studies have shown that mequinol is safe to use and can be effective in treating areas of the skin that have become darker due to sun exposure.
A randomized parallel-group study involving 216 subjects found that mequinol 2% with tretinoin 0.01% solution was effective in reducing the appearance of solar lentigines, or age or liver spots. The study found that the combination of mequinol and tretinoin was more effective than 3% hydroquinone.
The combination of these two ingredients can cause burning, tingling, and skin irritation. Using sunscreens in combination with theses substances will help you avoid them.
The Role of Sun Protection in Treating Hyperpigmentation
Sun protection is essential for those with hyperpigmentation, as sun exposure is the greatest triggering and exacerbating factor for this condition.
The best way to protect your skin from the sun is by wearing sunscreen with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 30 or higher every day. If you’re going out in direct sunlight for an extended period of time, consider using a higher SPF such as 50+.
When selecting a sunscreen, it is important to choose one with broad-spectrum protection, which means it protects against both UVA and UVB rays. Common ingredients in broad-spectrum sunscreens include avobenzone, oxybenzone, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide. Avobenzone absorbs light in the ultra-violet range, but it is unstable by itself. To make it more stable and effective, manufacturers combine avobenzone with oxybenzone when mixing sunscreen ingredients.
Other methods include wearing wide-brimmed hats and long-sleeved shirts whenever possible; staying inside when it gets too hot outside; avoiding tanning beds entirely; avoiding midday sun exposure between 10 am – 4 pm when UV levels are highest; using window blinds/curtains during those hours if possible. And lastly, use caution when swimming in the ocean or pool; it’s important to remember that water absorbs UV rays and can intensify sunburn.